Advertisement

History of the Women’s Health Movement in the 20th Century

      The Women’s Health Movement (WHM) emerged during the 1960s and the 1970s with the primary goal to improve health care for all women. Despite setbacks in the area of reproductive rights during the 1980s, the WHM made significant gains in women’s health at the federal policy level during the 1980s and 1990s. The WHM became a powerful political force. The achievements of the movement in improving women’s health during the 20th century were numerous and significant.

      Key words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
      AWHONN Member Login
      AWHONN Members, full access to the journal is a member benefit. Use your society credentials to access all journal content and features
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

        • AAN Expert Panel on Women’s Health
        Women’s health and women’s health care: Recommendations of the 1996 AAN Expert Panel on Women’s Health.
        Nursing Outlook. 1997; 45: 7-15
        • Andrist L.
        A feminist model for women’s health care.
        Nursing Inquiry. 1997; 4: 268-274
        • Angell M.
        Caring for women’s health: What is the problem?.
        New England Journal of Medicine. 1993; 329: 271-272
        • Boogaard M.A.
        Rehabilitation of the female patient after myocardial infarction.
        Nursing Clinics of North America. 1984; 19: 433-440
        • Budoff P.W.
        Women’s centers: A model for future health care.
        Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1994; 30: 165-170
        • Butler J.D.
        • Walbert D.F.
        Abortion, medicine and the law.
        4th ed. Facts on File, Inc., New York1992
      1. (May 28)Office of Women’s Health. 1999 ([Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/maso/owhfs.htm)
        • Chang E.
        • Daly J.
        • Hawkins A.
        • McGirr J.
        • Fielding K.
        • Hemmings L.
        • O’Donoghue A.
        • Dennis M.
        An evaluation of the nurse practitioner role in a major rural emergency department.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1999; 30: 260-268
        • Clancy C.M.
        • Massion C.T.
        American women’s health care. A patchwork quilt with gaps.
        Journal of the American Medical Association. 1992; 268: 1918-1920
      2. (Spring)
        • Congressional Research Report
        Selected women’s health conditions: Federal spending and prevalence. US Congress Publication No. 93–670, Washington, DC1993
      3. (Spring)
        • Congressional Research Report
        Women’s health research. US Congress Publication No. 94–495, Washington, DC1994
      4. (June 26)
        • Day K.
        A fever for women’s health care.
        Washington Post, p. CO1, 1997
      5. Donoghue D.F. Women’s health in the curriculum: A resource guide for faculty. National Academy on Women’s Health Medical Education, Philadelphia1996
        • Doyal L.
        The politics of women’s health: Setting a global agenda.
        International Journal of Health Services. 1996; 26: 47-65
        • Dyches H.
        • Rushing B.
        The health status of women in the world-system.
        International Journal of Health Services. 1993; 23: 359-371
        • Fogel C.I.
        • Woods N.F.
        Women’s health care: A comprehensive handbook.
        Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA1995
        • Geary M.S.
        An analysis of the women’s health movement and its impact on the delivery of health care within the United States.
        Nurse Practitioner. 1995; 20 (27–28, 30–31): 24
        • Haire D.
        The cultural warping of childbirth.
        International Childbirth Education Association, Seattle, WA1972
      6. (July)
        • Harris J.
        Lactation in the workplace: What happens when a breastfeeding mother returns to work? Testimony of the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetrics and Neonatal Nurses to The Bipartisan Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues. 1998 ([Online]. Available: http://www.awhonn.org/advocacy/testi-mony7–98.htm)
        • Harrison M.
        Women’s health as a specialty: A deceptive solution.
        Journal of Women’s Health. 1992; 1: 101-106
        • King K.M.
        • Paul P.
        A historical review of the depiction of women in cardiovascular literature.
        Western Journal of Nursing Research. 1996; 18: 89-101
        • Kirschstein R.
        Women’s health: A course of action.
        Public Health Reports, July/August. 1987; : 7-8
        • LaRosa J.H.
        Office of Research on Women’s Health. National Institutes of Health and the women’s health agenda.
        Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1994; 30: 196-204
        • Levison S.P.
        Multidisciplinary women’s health centers: A viable option?.
        International Journal of Fertility and Menopausal Studies. 1996; 41: 132-135
        • Mann C.
        Women’s health research blossoms.
        Science. 1995; 267: 766-770
        • Marieskind H.
        The women’s health movement.
        International Journal of Health Services. 1975; 5: 217-223
        • Meinert C.L.
        The inclusion of women in clinical trials.
        Science. 1995; 269: 795-796
        • Merkatz R.B.
        • Junod S.W.
        Historical background of changes in FDA policy on the study and evaluation of drugs in women.
        Academic Medicine. 1994; 69: 703-707
        • Morse G.G.
        Reframing women’s health in nursing education: A feminist approach.
        Nursing Outlook. 1995; 43: 273-277
        • Myers P.C.
        • Lenci B.
        • Sheldon M.G.
        A nurse practitioner as the first point of contact for urgent medical problems in a general practice setting.
        Family Practice. 1997; 14: 492-497
        • Nichols F.
        • Gennaro S.
        The childbirth experience.
        in: Nichols F. Humenick S. Childbirth birth education: Practice, research and theory. 2nd ed. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia2000: 66-83
        • Nowak R.
        New push to reduce maternal mortality in poor countries.
        Science. 1995; 269: 780-782
        • Pinn V.
        Women’s health research.
        Journal of the American Medical Association. 1992; 268 (October 14): 1921-1922
        • Raftos M.
        • Mannix J.
        • Jackson D.
        More than motherhood? A feminist exploration of Women’s health’ in papers indexed by CINAHL 1993–1995.
        Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1997; 26: 1142-1149
        • Remarks by the President at Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues
        Speech presented by President Clinton, Mellon Auditorium. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC1997 ([Online]. Available: http://www.usia.gov/usa/womenusa/speech5.htmn [1999, March 22]. October 21)
        • Ruzek S.B.
        The women’s health movement: Feminist alternatives to medical control.
        Praeger, New York1978
        • Ruzek S.B.
        Towards a more inclusive model of women’s health.
        American Journal of Public Health. 1993; 83: 6-8
        • Ryan J.W.
        Collaboration of the nurse practitioner and physician in long-term care.
        Lippincott’s Primary Care Practice. 1999; 3: 127-134
        • Schneir M.
        Feminism in our time.
        Vintage, New York1994
        • Sechzer J.A.
        • Griffin A.
        • Pfafflin S.M.
        Women’s health and paradigm change.
        Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1994; 30: 2-20
        • Sharp N.
        Women’s health: A powerful public issue.
        Nursing Management. 1993; 24: 17-19
        • Taylor D.L.
        • Woods N.R.
        Changing women’s health, changing nursing practice.
        JOGNN. 1996; 25: 791-802
      7. (March 15)
        • University of Michigan School of Nursing
        Women’s health. 1999 ([Online]. Available: http://www.umich.edu/~nursing/academics/phd/womenshlt.html)
      8. (March 15)
        • Update—The Congressional Caucus for Women’s Issues
        1999 ([Online]. Available: http://www.house.gov/lowey/caucus.htm)
        • Varkevisser C.M.
        Women’s health in a changing world. A continuous challenge.
        Tropical and Geographical Medicine. 1995; 47: 186-192
        • Walker L.O.
        • Tinkle M.B.
        Toward an integrative science of women’s health.
        JOGNN. 1996; 25: 379-382
        • Wardell D.
        Margaret Sanger: Birth control’s successful revolutionary.
        American Journal of Public Health. 1980; 70: 736-742
        • Women’s Health
        Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women’s Health Issues.
        Public Health Reports. 1985; 100: 73-106
        • Woods N.R.
        The United States women’s health research agenda analysis and critique.
        Western Journal of Nursing Research. 1994; 16: 467-479