Marijuana Use During Pregnancy

  • Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses
      The Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) supports the implementation of legislation, policies, and public health initiatives that help raise awareness, remove stigma, discourage use, and facilitate access to prenatal and maternity care for women who use marijuana during pregnancy. AWHONN also supports ongoing research on the prevalence of use of marijuana during pregnancy and the short- and long-term effects for the woman, fetus, and newborn.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
      AWHONN Member Login
      AWHONN Members, full access to the journal is a member benefit. Use your society credentials to access all journal content and features

      Purchase one-time access:

      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • American Academy of Pediatrics
        Breastfeeding and the use of human milk.
        Pediatrics. 2012; 129: e827-e841
        • American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
        Committee opinion no. 722: Marijuana use during pregnancy and lactation.
        Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2017; 130: e205-e209
        • Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses
        AWHONN position statement: Criminalization of pregnant women with substance use disorders.
        Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 2015; 44: 155-157
        • Brown Q.L.
        • Sarvet A.L.
        • Shmulewitz D.
        • Martins S.S.
        • Wall M.M.
        • Hasin D.S.
        Trends in marijuana use among pregnant and nonpregnant reproductive-aged women, 2002–2014.
        Journal of the American Medical Association. 2017; 317: 207-209
      1. Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974. Pub. L. 93-247, 42 U.S.C. § 67 (1974, 2003).

      2. Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. Pub. L. 91-513, 84 Stat. 1236 (1970).

        • Crume T.L.
        • Juhl A.L.
        • Brooks-Russell A.
        • Hall K.E.
        • Wymore E.
        • Borgelt L.M.
        Cannabis use during the perinatal period in a state with legalized recreational and medical marijuana: The association between maternal characteristics, breastfeeding patterns, and neonatal outcomes.
        Journal of Pediatrics. 2018; 197: 90-96
      3. Jacobs Institute of Women’s Health. (2017). Bridging the divide white paper: Pregnant women and substance use: Overview of research & policy in the United States. Retrieved from

      4. Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003. Pub. L. 108-36, 117 U.S.C. § 800, codified as amendment 42 U.S.C. § 5101 et seq. (2003).

        • Krening C.
        • Hanson K.
        Marijuana—Perinatal and legal issues with use during pregnancy.
        Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing. 2018; 32: 43-52
        • Mehmedic Z.
        • Chandra S.
        • Slade D.
        • Denham H.
        • Foster S.
        • Patel A.S.
        • ElSohly M.A.
        Potency trends of Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated cannabis preparations from 1993 to 2008.
        Journal of Forensic Science. 2010; 55: 1209-1217
        • Moore D.G.
        • Turner J.D.
        • Parrott A.C.
        • Goodwin J.E.
        • Fulton S.E.
        • Min M.O.
        • Singer L.T.
        During pregnancy, recreational drug-using women stop taking ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) and reduce alcohol consumption, but continue to smoke tobacco and cannabis: Initial findings from the Development and Infancy Study.
        Journal of Psychopharmacology. 2010; 24: 1403-1410
      5. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). The health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids: The current state of evidence and recommendations for research. Retrieved from

      6. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2018). Marijuana. Retrieved from

        • Passey M.E.
        • Sanson-Fisher R.W.
        • D’Este C.A.
        • Stirling J.M.
        Tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use during pregnancy: Clustering of risks.
        Drug & Alcohol Dependence. 2014; 134: 44-50
      7. Ryan, S. A., Ammerman, S. D., O’Connor, M. E., & Committee on Substance Use and Prevention, Section on Breastfeeding. (2018). Marijuana use during pregnancy and breastfeeding: Implications for neonatal and childhood outcomes. Pediatrics, 142(3), e20181889. Retrieved from

      8. U.S. Customs and Border Protection. (2015). Did you know … Marijuana was once a legal cross-border import? Retrieved from

      9. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.). Drug schedules. Retrieved from

        • van Gelder M.M.
        • Reefhuis J.
        • Caton A.R.
        • Werler M.M.
        • Druschel C.M.
        • Roeleveld N.
        • National Birth Defects Prevention Study
        Characteristics of pregnant illicit drug users and associations between cannabis use and perinatal outcome in a population-based study.
        Drug & Alcohol Dependence. 2010; 109: 243-247